Scientists propose using lasers to map rainforests

September 6th, 2014 by Rhett Butler

Forest map in the Peruvian Amazon developed from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory, an airplane-based platform that uses advanced LiDAR to measure forest carbon values and other properties. Photo courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science


  • A new Carbon Balance and Management paper argues that mapping the world’s tropical forests with a fleet of airplanes outfitted with advanced lasers, known as LiDAR, could rapidly and accurately assess global forest carbon stocks for $250 million, or less than the cost of a typical Earth observation satellite mission.
  • The paper says the system could be used to provide a baseline for REDD+, a program that aims to compensate tropical countries for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
  • LiDAR would be faster and cheaper than current ground-based approaches and more accurate than satellite-based systems.

More: World’s rainforests could be mapped in 3D at high resolution by 2020 for under $250M








Wildlife of the Caribbean– book review

August 8th, 2014 by mongabay

By Gabriel Thoumi

Cover art. Courtesy of Princeton University Press.

Wildlife of the Caribbean is the only book of its kind. It is a comprehensive guide to the fauna and flora of the Caribbean Islands, containing color images on a broad range of animals and plants including birds, mammals, plants, seashells, fish, turtles, cetaceans, and others.

The primary goal of the Wildlife of the Caribbean is to promote an interest and knowledge by locals and tourists in the natural environment of the Caribbean. The book is written for novices with little experience in fauna and flora identification. Written by two renowned and successful Caribbean conservationists, and building on their previously well-received guidebook, Birds of the West Indies, Herbert A. Raffaele and James W. Wiley’s Wildlife of the Caribbean is resounding success.

Wildlife of the Caribbean has over 600 color images describing 451 species. It is clear with simple descriptions and its pocketbook size makes it ideal for hiking Caribbean mountains and beaches, easily fitting into a handbag or backpack.

As a frequent traveler to the Caribbean for work, I only wish Raffaele’s and Wiley’s book had been published a few years ago as I would have used this book on my trips. It is a great find, and a much-needed quality addition to any naturalist’s library.

How to order:
Wildlife of the Caribbean
Publisher:            Princeton University Press
ISBN:                        9781400851690
Authors:                Herbert A. Raffaele and James W. Wiley

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com. 

 








Reporter’s Journal: Bomb Harvest

August 6th, 2014 by mongabay

Photo copyright (c) 2014 Melati Kaye.

Porters sort and tally a week’s worth of landings from a bomb fishing crew before carrying the catch to the docks in Makassar, Indonesia. Each plastic basket is worth Rp. 100,000 ($8). The full tally for this boat was Rp. 18,800,000 or $1404. The porters get paid a percentage for shuttling the catch to shore and selling the fish to wholesale distributors in the city.

This photo was taken by Mongabay.org’s Special Reporting Initiatives fellow Melati Kaye, who is reporting on the state of the fishing industry in Indonesia.








A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania – book review

August 5th, 2014 by mongabay

By Gabriel Thoumi

Cover art courtesy of Princeton University Press.

A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania provides the most up-to-date guidebook for trekking in Tanzania. It includes detailed species accounts and delightful photos of 135 of the larger mammals of Tanzania. It is the first book to include both marine mammals and recently discovered species of Tanzania. While Tanzania has over 340 recorded mammal species, over 200 of these are rodents, bats, and shrews. For the most part, these smaller mammals are not included in this guidebook.

In 1961, when Tanzania became independent, it had one national park. Now over 20 percent of Tanzania has some form of conservation management. Yet, recently, the larger mammals of Tanzania are declining due to poaching, habitat destruction, illegal logging, charcoal production, mangrove degradation, and other activities.

For example, Tanzanian elephant populations have decreased 50 percent from 2009 to 2013, while Tanzanian black rhinoceros require 24-hour armed guard.

Yet Tanzania is challenging these trends by growing hectares under conservation, increasing national parks, expanding maritime reserves, and working with hand-in-hand with local communities and stakeholders to improve the state of their nation’s natural heritage.

A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania organizes species descriptions with detailed analysis and many color photos. The book provides a detailed guide on how to observe these species with the least impact on their environment and in the most successful manner. Species checklists are provided for Tanzania’s national parks. Species are also organized by Tanzania’s 18 major vegetation zones.

A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania is a great book that is part of the recent series of mammal and bird guides to Kenya and Tanzania by WildGuides.

All author royalties from the sale of A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania will be donated to the Wildlife Conservation Society to support conservation projects in Tanzania.

How to order:
A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania
Publisher:            Princeton University Press
ISBN:                    9781400852802
Authors:                Charles Foley, Lara Foley, Alex Lobora, Daniela De Luca, Maurus Msuha, Tim R. B. Davenport, and Sarah Durant

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com. 








The Amazing World of Flyingfish – book review

August 1st, 2014 by mongabay

By Gabriel Thoumi

Cover art courtesy of Princeton University Press.

Do you remember when you were a kid and you heard about flyingfish for the first time? I do. I was amazed. Fish that could fly! I wondered how far they flew and if they flew for real.

The first time I saw flyingfish in person, I had the good fortune to be sailing 3,000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean, south to north. We were giddy with delight to see these amazing small fish of the sea.

In The Amazing World of Flyingfish, we are introduced to the beautiful flyingfish species from around the globe. Known as hummingbirds or butterflies of the sea, flyingfish are small bony fish from the family Exocetidae.

Steve Howell’s charming book The Amazing World of Flyingfish provides a short introduction to the world of flyingfish. Regardless of their prevalence globally in the ocean’s food chain, little is known about them. There are at least 60 species of flyingfish, although nobody knows for sure. Flyingfish are considered a delicacy in Japan and Barbados. In fact, Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados have recently had an international conflict over fishing for flyingfish.

In The Amazing World of Flyingfish, flyingfish are described in beautiful photographs. The text is concise and describes what little is known about the natural history of flyingfish.

In the book, flyingfish are compared to other “flying” life of the sea. The only other life of the sea that travels similarly are in fact flying squid. Flyingfish can travel as long as 600 feet above the surface of the water, skimming the waves, while flying squid are only able to do a short one-time spurt above the waves.

The Amazing World of Flyingfish is great book for any fan of natural history and anyone who still remembers they day they discovered some fish can fly!

How to order:
The Amazing World of Flyingfish
Publisher:            Princeton University Press
ISBN:                        9780691160115
Author:                   Steve N. G. Howell

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com. 








Reporter’s Journal: A Wood & Glass View

July 31st, 2014 by mongabay

Photo copyright (c) 2014 Melati Kaye.

Wood and glass goggles used by traditional divers throughout Sulawesi. Though produced near-exclusively by the Bajau sea gypsies, “traditional” goggles are commonly used, regardless of ethnic group, when spear-fishing, cyanide fishing or collecting sea cucumbers, groupers or fish killed with bombs that are detonated underwater. However rubber recreational dive masks are becoming more prevalent.

This photo was taken by Mongabay.org’s Special Reporting Initiatives fellow Melati Kaye, who is reporting on the state of the fishing industry in Indonesia.








A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring– book review

July 30th, 2014 by mongabay

By Gabriel Thoumi

Cover art. Courtesy of Princeton University Press.

Great Britain is known as a nation of birdwatchers – or twitchers – who will travel to great lengths to conserve bird habitat and to observe birds in the wild. Yet in certain circumstances, Great Britain’s birds of prey are persecuted. This cultural dichotomy is explored in wonderful detail in A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring.

Great Britain has 15 species of birds of prey, five of which were previously extinct and now have been successfully reintroduced with self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, while Great Britain has a deep cultural reverence for their birds of prey, some species are still persecuted as they are seen as agricultural pests.

In A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring, author David Cobham and illustrator Bruce Pearson describe in great detail this dichotomy of Great Britain. Scientists, communities, writers, poets, and artists have worked diligently to improve public perception of birds of prey while at the same time some of these same birds of prey are threatened by British perception as pests.

Rich in cultural detail, descriptive illustrations, and personal recollections, A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring paints a canvas demonstrating how cultural perceptions can be changed to improve conservation outcomes.

How to order:
A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring
Publisher:            Princeton University Press
ISBN:                        9780691157641
Authors:                David Cobham with Bruce Pearson with a foreword by Chris Packham

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com. 








Reporter’s Journal: Times are getting dark

July 29th, 2014 by mongabay

By Mongabay Special Reporting Initiative Fellow Ruxandra Guidi. Photo by Roberto Guerra.

Photo copyright (c) 2014 SRI Fellow Roberto Guerra.

This is the season of hurricanes and heavy storms. But the archipelago of Kuna Yala, located south of the hurricane belt, is typically spared the damage and strong winds that hit islands further north in the Caribbean, year after year. In recent years, however, rains have forced the people living in these islands — an estimated 30,000 — to start making drastic changes to their way of life.

The first time we visited the island of Usdupu in October of 2009, the water came down daily, flooding the narrow dirt paths that connect all the thatched roof homes. Kids played in the brown water half-naked, without a worry in the world. But some of their parents spoke to us about being unable to cook with charcoal on the floor, as is their tradition, due to the persistent flooding. Others showed us how they were using cement debris and even trash to create landfill on the edges of the island, which is on sea level.

But then, we also noticed other, more profound ways, in which the flooding seemed to be affecting the Kuna.

One of the traditional songs performed by their wise elders, or sahilas, described their collection of islands as “coconuts resting firmly on the sand” that would never disappear, regardless of the weather. Yet starting in the Fall of 2008, after a series of giant waves flooded most of the islands, the sahilas had began singing a new song. “Why are our mothers crying?” the lyrics went. “It is because of the hurricanes and earthquakes. Times are getting dark. Who is causing this?”

Changing weather patterns, sea level rise, and man-made climate change are three new modern-day concerns that the Kuna have had to grapple with. Sahilas, men, women, and young people alike have attended information workshops focused on these issues, and the  Congreso General Kuna, the indigenous territory’s highest authority, tackles things like adaptation and mitigation on a regular basis.

This July, we’ll be returning to some of these islands to find out more about the challenges faced by the Kuna. As it turns out, the well-preserved mainland forest — that’s less than a mile away from these islands — may be an important part of the solution.

 








Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley – book review

July 28th, 2014 by mongabay

By Gabriel Thoumi

 

Cover art courtesy of Princeton University Press.

Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley is another Adam Scott Kennedy tour de force! Following up on the Kennedys’ series of bird and mammal books for Kenyan and Tanzanian travelers, previously described here on Mongabay.com. The Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley is ideal for the traveler on safari visiting the Rift Valley’s national parks, such as Lake Nakuru, Lake Bogoria, Mount Longonot, and Hell’s Gate.

The value of a book like the Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley is that it lends itself to easy interpretation and use by those who are interested in birdwatching, those who are interested in conservation, and those who care about biodiversity in general.

Similar to the previous guidebooks by the Kennedys, Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley includes over 300 image collages of the most common regional bird species in their various plumages for each identification. Birds are organized into sections broadly defined by the ecological zone they reside in. A useful scientific checklist of names is included as an appendix.

I highly recommend the Kennedys’ series of bird and mammal books for the casual traveler looking for a good, easy-to-use set of guidebooks for the Kenya and Tanzania region.

How to order:
Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley
Publisher:            Princeton University Press
ISBN:                        9781400851379
Author:                   Adam Scott Kennedy

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com. 








The Extreme Life of the Sea – book review

July 25th, 2014 by mongabay

By Gabriel Thoumi

 

Cover art. Courtesy of Princeton University Press.

The Extreme Life of the Sea, written by father and son team Stephen R. Palumbi and Anthony R. Palumbi, is simply a tour de force, a splendid must read for any natural history enthusiast.

In The Extreme Life of the Sea, we are taken through the challenges of the Earth’s oceans. From its great depths and abysses to extreme pressures and anaerobic environments, and in each location, we learn about the remarkable creatures that live there. The Earth’s oceans teem with creatures that have antifreeze in their blood, that switch sex as they reach maturity, that are little changed for millions and millions of years.

Stephen and Anthony Palumbi bring this undersurface world to us in their personal, engaging, journalistic style that is filled with charm and excitement. As you read each page, another discovery leaps out at you, capturing your imagination and encouraging you to read more.

One such story in The Extreme Life of the Sea is the following. In 1993, an Alaskan Inupiaq Eskimo hunted a Bowhead Whale (balaena mysticetus), as allowed under international treaty. While cleaning the carcass, the individual discovered deep inside an old scar in the whale, a broken off tip from an Eskimo stone harpoon. The stone harpoon tip was estimated to be at least a 100 years old. As a result, scientists began to understand that Bowhead Whales live two to three times longer than previously estimated, well into their hundreds.

The Extreme Life of the Sea is filled with many more remarkable stories like this one. It deserves to be read and reread again obtaining a special place on the bookshelf of any avid naturalist.

How to order:
The Extreme Life of the Sea
Publisher:            Princeton University Press
ISBN:                    9780691149561
Authors:                Stephen R. Palumbi and Anthony R. Palumbi

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com.