Birds of New Guinea: Second Edition is a wonderful updated and expanded second edition to the original Birds of New Guinea published 28 years ago. New Guinea is the world’s largest and possibly most diverse tropical island. Ranging from glaciers to steep volcanic valleys to scrubland to remote islands, New Guinea also has some of the most diverse avifauna on Earth, including the bulk of the world’s rightly famous birds-of-paradise.
Close to half of New Guinea’s birds are endemic – found nowhere else on Earth. From cassowaries to parrots to birds-of-paradise to kingfishers, New Guinea has some of the most interesting and diverse birding opportunities found anywhere on Earth. Birds of New Guinea: Second Edition describes in rich, illustrated plates 780 bird species including 366 endemic birds found only on New Guinea.
In Birds of New Guinea: Second Edition, the authors have greatly expanded the description of each species beyond the typical birding guide. Each bird’s description includes a highly detailed analysis of their behavior, diet, nesting, and other features including how to identify sex and local variation in plumage and size. This is done by changing the typical bird book style where information is only opposite the illustration of each bird by adding a second much larger expanded section on each bird that is separate from the illustration of each bird.
Birds of New Guinea: Second Edition is an absolute must-have for both birders and individuals who work in the public or private sector focused on conservation of New Guinea’s ecosystems.
How to order:
Birds of New Guinea: Second Edition Publisher: Princeton University Press
Authors: Thane K. Pratt and Bruce M. Beehler, authors; John C. Anderton and Szabolcs Kókay, illustrators
Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com.
The Birds of Western Africa: Second Edition is a fully updated and comprehensive expansion of the first edition, which was the winner of the 2004 Best Bird Book – Africa, Worldtwitch. This revised second edition, which is both compact and lightweight, is a must for any naturalist or scientist working in the region.
The Birds of Western Africa: Second Edition is authoritative and easy to use. It is the most up-to-date field guide available for bird species from Senegal and southern Mauritania to Chad in the northeast and Congo in the south. It has detailed descriptions of 1,285 birds alongside over 3,000 illustrations. Each bird species includes juvenile and adult illustrations and, in some cases, flight and variant illustrations.
Information on habitat, abundance, and endangered species status according to IUCN Red List is also provided. Given that the book covers such a large collection of birds, it is remarkable in its economy and usefulness of information.
The Birds of Western Africa: Second Edition is a must-have for any naturalist or scientist who is focused on West Africa.
In 1800, passenger pigeons may have counted for 2 out of every 5 living birds in North America. Their flocks were in the billions. By 1914, they became extinct when Martha – the last passenger pigeon – died in a cage in the Cincinnati Zoo.
On the 100th year anniversary of her death, a new book, simply called The Passenger Pigeon, is a stunningly illustrated and rich cultural memorial to Martha – the last passenger pigeon – and to passenger pigeon’s unique ecological and cultural niche in the North America. The Passenger Pigeon is filled with haunting images and references by some of the greatest North American authors – Mark Twain, Henry David Thoreau, and others. These stories and ghostly images of a species that once numbered in the billions open up a door to time for us experience the passenger pigeon through our imaginations.
The Passenger Pigeon includes actual birdcalls written done in treble clef on a music staff and is adorned with advertisements from 150 years ago promoting pigeons hunts and inexpensive pigeon as food.
Yet, now, as we struggle to stop a global catastrophic biodiversity collapse, are their lessons we can learn from how the passenger pigeon – a species that numbered in the billions – went extinct in a single human lifespan? When we review historical records, we can interpret how deforestation in North America, needless killing of passenger pigeons as “pests,” and the consumption of their meat led to their extinction. Likewise, in reading The Passenger Pigeon we understand the heroic efforts early pioneers of conservation went through to educate the public and conserve passenger pigeons.
Our societal hubris sent passenger pigeons by train boxcar to manufacturing plants where their feathers were plucked for mattresses and their corpses sold for 30 cents a dozen for meat .But today, scientists are debating if and should we try to bring back the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) using modern scientific techniques. While at one point in our recent history, passenger pigeons were so numerous that the sound from an unimaginably massive flock was similar to rolling thunder and pounding horse hoofs, now we need consider what are the ramifications of potentially bringing back a species that has previously gone extinct?
While I have no opinion on this, what I might suggest is that we honor Martha and the passenger pigeon this year in the 100th anniversary of their extinction by remembering their impact on us, their place in nature, and never doing this again to any other species on Earth.
How to order: The Passenger Pigeon Publisher: Princeton University Press
Author: Errol Fuller
Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, is a frequent contributor to Mongabay.com.
Cover art. Courtesy of Princeton University Press.
Great Britain is known as a nation of birdwatchers – or twitchers – who will travel to great lengths to conserve bird habitat and to observe birds in the wild. Yet in certain circumstances, Great Britain’s birds of prey are persecuted. This cultural dichotomy is explored in wonderful detail in A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring.
Great Britain has 15 species of birds of prey, five of which were previously extinct and now have been successfully reintroduced with self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, while Great Britain has a deep cultural reverence for their birds of prey, some species are still persecuted as they are seen as agricultural pests.
In A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring, author David Cobham and illustrator Bruce Pearson describe in great detail this dichotomy of Great Britain. Scientists, communities, writers, poets, and artists have worked diligently to improve public perception of birds of prey while at the same time some of these same birds of prey are threatened by British perception as pests.
Rich in cultural detail, descriptive illustrations, and personal recollections, A Sparrowhawk’s Lament: How British Breeding Birds of Prey Are Faring paints a canvas demonstrating how cultural perceptions can be changed to improve conservation outcomes.
Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley is another Adam Scott Kennedy tour de force! Following up on the Kennedys’ series of bird and mammal books for Kenyan and Tanzanian travelers, previously described here on Mongabay.com. The Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley is ideal for the traveler on safari visiting the Rift Valley’s national parks, such as Lake Nakuru, Lake Bogoria, Mount Longonot, and Hell’s Gate.
The value of a book like the Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley is that it lends itself to easy interpretation and use by those who are interested in birdwatching, those who are interested in conservation, and those who care about biodiversity in general.
Similar to the previous guidebooks by the Kennedys, Birds of Kenya’s Rift Valley includes over 300 image collages of the most common regional bird species in their various plumages for each identification. Birds are organized into sections broadly defined by the ecological zone they reside in. A useful scientific checklist of names is included as an appendix.
I highly recommend the Kennedys’ series of bird and mammal books for the casual traveler looking for a good, easy-to-use set of guidebooks for the Kenya and Tanzania region.
Friday, October 11th is World Egg Day, when agribusiness promotes the consumption of eggs as a healthy source of protein. When it comes to one of Indonesia’s national icons however, the Endangered maleo bird (Macrocephalon maleo), conservationists such as the Alliance for Tompotika Conservation (AlTo) an SOS – Save Our Species grantee, are trying to discourage the practice of eating its giant eggs for special occasions.
Maleo digging. Photo by ALTO – Kevin Schafer
This distinctive megapode – about the size of a chicken – is endemic to Sulawesi and Buton Islands, where it once blackened the beaches during egg-laying season, when the usually solitary animals would march out of the jungle to mate and bury eggs deep in the sands. Nowadays, the unusual life-cycle of the maleo is an increasingly rare sight. Using its big claws to hatch and tunnel to the surface, the lone chick can walk, feed itself and fly within a matter of hours, being independent of its parents and leaving evolutionary biologists to ponder how individuals recognize each other later in life. A remarkable bird indeed, the maleo is also strikingly beautiful and has been legally protected in Indonesia since 1972. Yet old habits die hard and maleo eggs – like most megapode eggs – are very high in protein, making a tasty dish for those who can find them.
Consequently, as with so many species, it seems effective maleo conservation hinges on local support and participation in the process. Going beyond awareness-raising to protecting eggs on site has proven an effective strategy implemented by conservation organization AlTo which has been actively engaged with local Taima community members for the past decade.
Protecting nest sites and allowing eggs to hatch naturally has seen a 62% increase in bird populations in one site where AlTo works, for example. Meanwhile the impact of using other methods including incubation has yet to be measured and gauged. According to Marcy Summers, director of AlTo, “doing conservation as close to possible as keeping things in their natural wild state is generally the first way to go for effective conservation efforts.”
The giant maleo egg in a man’s hand. Photo by ALTO – Marcy Summers
AlTo’s strategy to date has been to educate local community members to identify, survey, monitor and protect egg sites and to report incidences of harvesting these precious eggs. As AlTo integrated into the community it has also begun to conduct surveys to identify other possible nesting beaches, often tapping into local knowledge and experience. But the organization also works with local authorities to support the enforcement of laws. Meanwhile, the recent official recognition of the area as one of seven Essential Ecosystems by the Indonesian Federal government is a boon for all local conservation efforts.
Naturally funding from external sources helps AlTo maintain and develop the program. For SOS a global coalition initiated by three founding partners—IUCN, World Bank, and GEF–it was the combination of an excellent grassroots project with proven results and the prospect of real conservation success that made AlTo’s maleo bird project the seventh active SOS project in Indonesia and its third in Sulawesi alone.
For Marcy Summers and the community of Tompotika, such support helps continue the slow but steady progress toward restoring the maleo bird to being more than just a national symbol, but a living breathing success story that everyone helped make happen. So perhaps today on World Egg Day, spare a thought for the maleo and its giant egg and get involved. Hopefully through the efforts of groups like AlTo we may yet be celebrating new calendar days like Maleo Egg Day instead!
A maleo pair. Photo by ALTO – Kevin Schafer
ALTO staff train villagers on maleo data. Photo by ALTO – Marcy Summers
The bus journey to Mindo winds up and out of the high, dry valley in which Quito sits between volcanic peaks, and then down into the wet, lush cloud forest on the western slopes of the Andes. This is one of the most biodiverse places on earth, within the Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena hotspot, and recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International. Mindo is a quiet little place, surrounded by forested hills which often disappear into the clouds. We arrived in the rain at dusk, and made our way along virtually deserted streets to our accommodation at Cabañas Armonia (http://www.birdingmindo.com/armonia.php). This is an orchid garden masquerading as jungle, and we were led to our little cabin, one of a handful tucked away amongst the plants. After the dry, thin air of Quito, the humidity, the smell of the wet vegetation, and the chorus of frogs, were wonderful.
Photos by Claire Salisbury.
The family that owns Cabañas Armonia maintains feeders for hummingbirds, and these tiny birds drink litres of sugar water between them every day. Watching and listening to them whirr, chirp and squeak is hypnotic, and catching them with your camera becomes an endless challenge.
Highlights of our stay at Cabañas Armonia included lazy birdwatching from our private hammock, with toucans and hummingbirds among the many species that regularly passed by. The garden is home to some 200 species of orchid, some so small that a magnifying glass is needed to appreciate their beauty, others unmissable in their extravagance. Wandering amongst them was a fascinating introduction to their variety and diversity. We also went for walks along the quiet lanes that lead out of town, which took us through verdant green valleys, coffee plantations, and lush vegetation, and rewarded us with sightings of gaudy tanagers, toucans and aracaris, and a stunning quetzal.
On our way back to Quito we visited Bellavista Cloud Forest Reserve (http://www.bellavistacloudforest.com/), 1000m higher up the mountains than Mindo. We got off the bus at a small village called Nanegalito, and were quickly approached by the driver of a pick-up truck taxi who drove us up the steep and winding single track lane to Bellavista lodge. The lodge sits within a private reserve that protects 700 hectares of cloud forest. There is an extensive trail system, comfortable accommodation, excellent food, and it is renowned for its birding. Such luxury and biodiversity meant that the lodge itself was way beyond our tight backpacker budget, but Bellavista is a rarity, offering affordable accommodation, alongside its more luxurious options, for travelers on a budget who are happy with a more rustic experience. It is possible to stay and explore the reserve on a shoestring: a small research station doubles as basic hostel accommodation, and incredibly, very few people make use of this. This is a big shame because the forest around Bellavista is like nothing we had seen before – huge tree ferns, and trees dripping with multiple layers of vegetation, shrouded in ethereal mist and cloud which sometimes broke to reveal the precipitous view down to the valleys below. The trails were easy to follow, and took us up and down steep ravines to hidden streams.
The research station accommodation was basic, but we had a warm bed and a hot shower, and pots and pans to cook with over a gas stove. Fellow residents included scientists from the United States, their Ecuadorian research assistants, a couple of temporarily captive birds that were the focus of their studies, a sink-full of beetles collected for a small project, and a noisy mouse who helped itself to a chunk of banana in the kitchen. The captive birds were, of course, early risers and woke us from their room next to ours with an ear-splitting duet at dawn. Electricity is from a generator that is only run for a few hours a day, and as it is virtually on the equator it got dark about 6pm. Evenings were spent quietly by the light of candles and headtorches, listening to the myriad noises coming from the forest.
“You conserve what you know, you don’t conserve what you don’t know.”
Photo by Federico Pardo / TropicoMedia.org.
I thought of this biology quote as I photographed along side Fernando, one of the Humboldt Society’s Ornithologist, as he pulled a shimmering green hummingbird out of the mist net. Strung between skinny silver poles around eight feet tall, the black mesh nets hung through the forest trails. They stood parallel to the forest, winding 100 feet down the trail. For every foot up the pole there was a main line where the net was doubled over, which created inescapable traps for the low flying birds. Fernando freed the bird’s legs and wings and held it between his two forefingers.
One of the greatest benefits of being a wildlife photographer is the ever changing job description. Scientists and conservation groups are needing media more and more to document their research and help conserve what’s out there.
While the mammalogists, herpetologists and botanists were still asleep back in the hotel, my partner Federico and I got up early to photograph with the birds and their scientists. We hiked through the darkness, rambling over rocks and tiny streams as the sun began to light the landscape in front of us. Through a mixture of pine and misty cloud forest ecosystems, I took long breaths. The smell of pine reminded me of my cottage in the North woods of Wisconsin. Our footsteps were muted as we crossed over pine needles and we began to hear the first songs of dawn. Orlando, another Humboldt Ornithologist, pulled out his pen and paper to write down the calls he heard, and excitedly noted their scientific names out loud. The three of us continued to walk downhill as he called back to the early birds with blends of long and short whistles.
When we met up with Fernando, he was seated on a blue tarp to avoid the wet grass with his clip board on his lap. At 11,000 feet he wore a heavy green jacket to stay warm from the wind and constant light rain produced from the cloud forest. As I took a few photographs of him measuring the beak and weight of the recently caught hummingbird, I thought of how strange it was to be taking the last photographs of it still breathing. When I put my camera down to watch him more closely, Fernando told me that he was sorry it had been such a slow morning. By this time yesterday morning they had caught nearly 10 different species already. He carefully turned each bird onto their backside and blew their feathers up and down to look for brood patches, a sign that a female may be incubating eggs back in her nest. I realized that no matter how beautiful they were, they still had bare chicken like skin underneath their colorful feathers. He placed them each into their own cotton pull string bags and the blue checkered cotton bags began multiplying, hung on a barbed wire fence behind him. Their contents rustled, but made no sound.
Photo by Erika Skogg.
By 1:00 PM we had already put in an 8 hour day, but our two-man photography team had more studio work to do before the live animals got too weak or tired. The scientists also had a long day ahead of them. Fernando worked with his headlamp as he sat at a small desk in the temporary working space of his hotel room. The desk was covered with sheets of newspaper along with a set of tweezers, knives and a pile of cotton balls. He had the skin and feathers of a small Tanager completely off of the body, hanging inside out over the skull. In his other hand he held the innards, neatly kept together in their natural casing. He used force to crack through the neck bones against the hard desk to disconnect everything from the empty skull. Being new to the sciences, I had a lot of questions, and he explained to me how he would stuff the rest of the body with cotton, but would preserve the skull to keep its natural form. It was a clean and dry procedure as he continuously rubbed sawdust over the insides of the bird. Outside his room a group of scientists arrived from the afternoon expedition and gathered in the dark courtyard holding plastic Ziplock bags up to the incandescent lights. I began to see the silhouettes of lizards and frogs and snapped off a few candid photographs of their excitement. The mammalogists were also inspecting their three mice they had caught from yesterday’s traps. An older couple also staying at the hotel closed their room door behind them and looked forward to see the current hotel activities. The woman shrieked softly and moved quickly around the commotion. Before the night was over, we been handed several bags filled with tree frogs and lizards to photograph back in our hotel room. Not wanting to hear their struggle all night in their plastic prisons, I hung the bags of amphibians in the bathroom with a clothes hanger before going to bed.
All of the individuals from this recent collection will be researched and added to the Humboldt Institute collection in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. A few individuals were sacrificed for the survival of their species. Without going into the field to photograph and collect plants, mammals, birds and frogs; rich and biologically diverse places may never be conserved. It is the biologists job to research what is out there, and the photographer’s job to document and help them achieve that.
Photo by Federico Pardo / TropicoMedia.org.
Photo by Erika Skogg.
Federico Pardo capturing a shot. Photo by Erika Skogg.
Fernando, a Humboldt Society Ornithologist, removing a hummingbird out of the mist net. Photo by Erika Skogg.
Panama has a total of 972 bird species, of which 20 are considered to be globally threatened. Since the 1940’s, Panama’s tree cover has been reduced by over 50% which is having an effect on the avifauna of the nation. Species in Panama range from Giant Harpy Eagles, Panama’s national bird, to small species of kingfishers, with many in between.
Harpy eagle, the world’s largest eagle. Photo by Rhett A. Butler / Mongabay.com
Unidentified bird in Panama. Photo by Rhett A. Butler.
An interview in four parts with Paula Kahumbu, Executive Director of WildlifeDirect, provides detail and context on the use of the neurotoxic pesticide Furadan to kill lions and birds en masse in Kenya. Lions are down to around 2,000 individuals in Kenya. Kahumbu, recently awarded an Emerging Explorer by the National Geographic, and WildlifeDirect are working to pressure the government to estimate the environmental and human cost of Furadan.
Also known as Carbofuran, Furadan is manufactured by the Farm Machinery and Chemicals Corporation (FMC) in the United States. As of May 2009, the US banned Furadan from being used on any crop for human consumption due to its lethal toxicity. Still, FMC says it will continue to manufacture the pesticide for use abroad.
(01/19/2011) It’s a common image of the African savanna: vultures flocking to a carcass on the great plains. However, a new study has found that vulture populations are plummeting in Kenya’s Masai Mara National Reserve, a part of the Serengeti plains, due to habitat loss as well as the illegal killing of lions. Increasingly farmers and livestock owners have targeted lions and other big predators by poisoning livestock carcasses with toxic pesticides, such as Furadan. Not only illegal, such poisonings take their toll on other Serengeti wildlife, including vultures that perish after feeding on the laced carcasses.
(05/11/2010) Eight lions have been poisoned to death in a month in Kenya, according to conservation organization WildlifeDirect. Locals, frustrated by lions killing their livestock, have taken to poisoning the great cats using a common pesticide in Kenya called carbofuran, known commercially as Furadan.
(11/10/2009) On Monday October 26th a three-year-old girl mistakenly ate the pesticide Furadan (also known as carbofuran) in western Kenya. Her father, a teacher at a primary school, said that he had no knowledge of how dangerous the pesticide was, which he had purchased to kill pests in his vegetable garden.
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